The reaction may be predictable, or allergic or idiosyncratic (unpredictable).
In the context of substance use, the term includes unpleasant psychological or physical reactions to drug taking.
See also: dependence; dependence syndromeaddiction medicine In the USA in the late 1980s, this became the preferred term for the branch of medicine dealing with alcohol- and drug-related conditions.
The term for a practitioner of addiction medicine is "addictionist" See also: narcologist; narcologyadministration, method of Route or mode of administration, i.e.
The term addiction also conveys the sense that such substance use has a detrimental effect on society, as well as on the individual; when applied to the use of alcohol, it is equivalent to alcoholism.
Addiction is a term of long-standing and variable usage.
the way in which a substance is introduced into the body, such as oral ingestion, intravenous (IV), subcutaneous, or intramuscular injection, inhalation, smoking, or absorption through skin or mucosal surfaces, such as the gums, rectum, or genitalia.
See also: IDU; IVDUadverse drug reaction In the general medical and pharmacological fields, denotes a toxic physical or (less commonly) psychological reaction to a therapeutic agent.
In DSM-IIIR*, "psychoactive substance abuse" is defined as "a maladaptive pattern of use indicated by ...continued use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent social, occupational, psychological or physical problem that is caused or exacerbated by the use [or by] recurrent use in situations in which it is physical1y hazardous".
This category might more appropriately be termed "misuse of non- psychoactive substances" (compare misuse, drug or alcohol).
In ICD-I0, this diagnosis is included within the section "Behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors" (F5O-F59).
Ethanol results from the fermentation of sugar by yeast.
Under usual conditions, beverages produced by fermentation have an alcohol concentration of no more than 14%.