Violence includes those acts that result from a power relationship, including threats and intimidation, neglect or acts of omission.
Such non-physical violence has a broad range of outcomes – including psychological harm, deprivation and maldevelopment.
These consequences can be immediate, as well as latent, and can last for years after the initial abuse.
Defining outcomes solely in terms of injury or death thus limits the understanding of the full impact of violence.
This typology, while imperfect and far from being universally accepted, does provide a useful framework for understanding the complex patterns of violence taking place around the world, as well as violence in the everyday lives of individuals, families and communities.
It also overcomes many of the limitations of other typologies by capturing the nature of violent acts, the relevance of the setting, the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim, and – in the case of collective violence – possible motivations for the violence.
Unlike the other two broad categories, the subcategories of collective violence suggest possible motives for violence committed by larger groups of individuals or by states.
The former includes suicidal thoughts, attempted suicides – also called para suicide or deliberate self-injury in some countries – and completed suicides.
Self-abuse, in contrast, includes acts such as self-mutilation.
Economic violence includes attacks by larger groups motivated by economic gain – such as attacks carried out with the purpose of disrupting economic activity, denying access to essential services, or creating economic division and fragmentation.
Clearly, acts committed by larger groups can have multiple motives.